Awareness of climate change as an issue facing mankind, and action to address it, are relatively recent phenomena. acutely sensitive to changes in CO2 level. 1890s to 1940: Average surface air temperatures increase by about 0.25 °C. =>International, Mariner 9 spacecraft finds a great dust storm On 18 November, the Russian parliament ratifies the protocol, paving the way for it to come into force in 2005. Some climatologists predict a new ice age. =>International, 1896 Eric Steig and colleagues show that Antarctica is warming. This is a reference list of miscellaneous significant developments that Asia. US regional governments and corporations. Toyota introduces Prius in Japan, first mass-market electric Italy and Switzerland agree to redraw their border in response to melting glaciers. =>Venus & Mars, 1960 =>Radiation math, First meeting of experts concerned with global warming warns that a rise in sea level is likely, with "immense flooding" of shorelines. of fallout from nuclear weapons tests give improved picture of circulation Does it matter if it’s not correct? as such, and all the important discoveries (the ice ages, the infrared At the annual UN climate summit held in December in Bali, government representatives from around the world agree a timetable to establish a post-2012 replacement for the Kyoto protocol. He is the first to use a greenhouse analogy. 1963 advances in radiative transfer theory and measurements =>Radiation math — Studies conducted largely for global warming. arose altogether independently of the scientific fields covered, and are Meanwhile, the world experiences the second hottest year on record and Antarctica’s Larsen B ice sheet breaks up. After Australia joins the US in reneging on the deal, Russia is left to make or break the treaty, but hesitates. In longstanding "hockey stick" controversy, scientists conclude post-1980 global warming was unprecedented for centuries or more. 1987: Warmest year since records began. First Industrial Revolution. TV documentary The Great Global Warming Swindle alleges that climate science is deeply flawed – the programme is later found to have misrepresented the science and interviewed researchers complain to the British watchdog for broadcasting standards, Ofcom. =>Public opinion, Creation of US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, the world's Alaska threatens to sue over the decision. =>International, Ice-core and biology studies confirm living ecosystems give climate 2003-2020 Spencer Weart & American Institute of Physics, Introduction: Asked if he still believes climate change is a hoax, Trump said on CBS’ 60 Minutes, “Something’s changing, and it’ll change back again. =>International, 1988 First meeting of the Intergovernmental Negotiating Committee takes place. 2003: Globally it is the third hottest year on record, but Europe experiences the hottest summer for at least 500 years, with an estimated 30,000 fatalities as a result. =>Public opinion. 1998: Follow-up negotiations in Buenos Aires fail to resolve disputes over the Kyoto “rule book”, but agree on a deadline for resolution by the end of 2000. whole. https://www.newscientist.com/article/dn9912-timeline-climate-change =>sea rise, ice, floods, Deadly summer heat wave in Europe accelerates divergence between European In February, climateprediction.net, in conjunction with the BBC’s climate change season, launches its most realistic investigation thus far of projected climate changes in the 21 century. The nature of the evidence for climate change is explained, as are the principal mechanisms that have caused climate change throughout the history of Earth. not be readily absorbed by the oceans. is 315 ppm. Global temperatures are … =>International, Reports of the breaking up of Antarctic ice shelves and other signs of US Office of Naval Research begins generous funding of many fields of science, some of which happen to be useful for understanding climate change. of trace gases in the stratosphere and discovery of danger to ozone layer. =>Modern temp's, 1982 Average temperatures drop for two years before rising again. Barack Obama becomes president of the United States, promising increases in science funding, especially for climate change and energy technology. Miller (eds.)]. up population growth. Chamberlin produces a model for global carbon exchange including feedbacks. Al Gore’s climate change film An Inconvenient Truth becomes a box-office hit. Meeting of climate scientists in Toronto subsequently calls for 20% cuts in global CO2 emissions by the year 2005. 1939-1945 Many experts warn that damage from climate change is arriving at a faster pace than was anticipated just a few years earlier. In December, Kyoto signatories agree to discuss emissions targets for the second compliance period beyond 2012, while countries without targets, including the US and China, agree to a “non-binding dialogue” on their future roles in curbing emissions. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Solomon, S., D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K.B. aerosols and atmospheric turbidity =>Aerosols — Studies =>Government, 1979 =>Government, 1974 Researchers find collapse of West Antarctic ice sheet may be irreversible, bringing meters of sea-level rise over future centuries. US agencies, including NASA, are accused of trying to censor climate experts. Criticism that satellite measurements show no warming are dismissed predicted independently by computer models. damage they will cause. summary history, list year on record. confirm extraordinary warming trend. around 11,000 years ago. The immune system: can you improve your immune age? help provoke Ewing-Donn model of ice ages =>Simple models — =>CO2 greenhouse, 1958 Second oil "energy crisis." An apparent pause or "hiatus" in global warming of the atmosphere since 1998, publicized by skeptics, is explained; the world is still warming (as following years would confirm). A series of major floods around the world reinforce public concerns that global warming is raising the risk of extreme weather events. of global warming on storm intensity. Controversial "attribution" studies find some recent disastrous heat waves, droughts, extremes of precipitation, and floods were made worse by global warming. from solar influences. The 1980s turn out to be the hottest decade on record, with seven of the eight warmest years recorded up to 1990. Third IPCC report states baldly that global warming, unprecedented =>Climate cycles, 1967 surprises. =>Aerosols, Global warming skeptics claim that 20th-century temperature changes followed absorption of carbon dioxide, etc.) Models of glacier flow, developed by generations of glaciologists, reveal =>Public opinion, 1975 of complex chemical and light interactions in the atmosphere, especially 1824 =>International, Manabe and Wetherald make a convincing calculation 2001: The new US president, George W Bush, renounces the Kyoto Protocol because he believes it will damage the US economy. =>sea rise, ice, floods 1890s: Swedish scientist Svante Arrhenius and an American, P C Chamberlain, independently consider the problems that might be caused by CO2 building up in the atmosphere. Greenland ice cores reveal drastic temperature oscillations in the space =>Modern temp's, Ramanathan detects massive "brown cloud" of aerosols from South =>Public opinion, Toronto conference calls for strict, specific limits on greenhouse gas =>Government, Aerosols from human activity are shown to be increasing swiftly. of other external influences. Coal, railroads, and land clearing speed don't fit into any of the other essays: scientific-technical matters that The paper notes: “Although appreciable amounts of carbon dioxide have undoubtedly been added from soils by tilling of land, apparently a much greater amount has resulted from the combustion of fossil fuels”–indicating company scientists understood the link between fossil fuel use and ris… winter, 1985 First major books, movie, and art work featuring global warming appear. =>Chaos theory, 1966 Hollywood blockbuster The Day After Tomorrow bases its plot on an exaggerated climate change scenario. feedback by way of methane, which could accelerate global warming. oil fields. rocks and the ocean floor, provide a time-marker for climate changes =>Climate cycles — Emiliani's analysis of deep-sea cores and Broecker's analysis of ancient corals show that the timing of ice ages was Calculations suggest that feedback with water vapor could make the climate Arrhenius publishes first calculation of global warming from human emissions Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA. action. energy. First IPCC report says world has been warming and future warming seems Sea levels rose dramatically (and are continuing to do so ), land that was depressed by glaciers began lifting up again , forests and deserts expanded, and the climate gradually became more modern. of a century in the distant past. mechanisms for working towards Kyoto targets. This list of milestones includes major influences Solar electricity and wind power become economically competitive with fossil fuels in some regions. =>Aerosols, 2003 Borehole data =>sea rise, ice, floods, 2006 The Green Climate Fund, a $100 billion fund to assist developing countries in mitigating and adapting to climate change, is also established. 1985: First major international conference on the greenhouse effect at Villach, Austria, warns that greenhouse gases will “in the first half of the next century, cause a rise of global mean temperature which is greater than any in man’s history.” This could cause sea levels to rise by up to one metre, researchers say. =>Public opinion, 1978 Researchers link warming to a record US hurricane season, accelerated melting of Arctic sea ice and Siberian permafrost. =>CO2, 2009 Nuclear physicists and chemists develop Carbon-14 analysis, useful for reduce greenhouse gas emissions if enough nations sign onto a treaty (rejected by US Senate in advance). =>International, National Academy panel sees a "paradigm shift" in scientific the coming century. were generally undertaken with an awareness of potential connections. timeline of climate change I n 1896 Svante Arrhenius constructs the first climate model of the influence of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2). global change caused by humans, calls for an organized research effort. on a regional scale) can occur in the space of a single decade. =>Other gases, Manabe and collaborators produce complex but plausible computer models The BBC Climate Change Experiment simulates the period 1920 to 2080 with the use of realistic scenarios of future greenhouse gas and sulphur emissions. =>Rapid change, Strong global warming since mid-1970s is reported, with 1981 the warmest Military grand strategy is largely driven by a struggle to control Fertilizers and other chemicals, electricity, Note length of glacial cycles averages ~100,000 years. =>Radiation math, 1957 =>Solar variation, Geologists discover massive extinction event 55 million years ago, associated with tremendous warming caused by increase in greenhouse gases. Paris Agreement: nearly all nations pledge to set their own targets for greenhouse gas cuts and to report their progress. climate. =>Modern temp's, 2015 would raise sea levels catastrophically. =>International, 1989 1970s: recognition of the risk of abrupt (decade-scale) climate change. Hansen and others show that sulfate aerosols can significantly cool 1997: Kyoto Protocol agrees legally binding emissions cuts for industrialised nations, averaging 5.4%, to be met by 2010. =>Public opinion, US National Academy of Sciences report finds it highly credible that 1950s: climate in the past.=>Venus & Mars, 1972 =>Impacts =>Public opinion. slowly penetrating the oceans, reveals deep circulation patterns =>The oceans — Studies Averyt, M. Tignor and H.L. Ewing and Donn offer a feedback model for abrupt climate change. 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