Dr. Joe Felter is the former Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense for South and Southeast Asia. Prior to assuming the Texas A&M presidency, on August 1, 2002, he served as Interim Dean of the George Bush School of Government and Public Service at Texas A&M from 1999 to 2001. Former Secretaries of Defense Ashton Carter, Dick Cheney, William Cohen, Robert Gates, Chuck Hagel, Leon Panetta, William Perry, and Donald Rumsfeld, signed the opinion piece. Mr. Christopher C. Miller served as the Acting Secretary of Defense, from Nov. 9, 2020, until Jan. 20, 2021.Earlier in 2020, he Performed the Duties of the Assistant Secretary of Defense …   Political Independent / Unknown, The secretary of defense is sixth in the presidential line of succession, following the secretary of the treasury and preceding the attorney general. The Department of Defense provides the military forces needed to deter war and ensure our nation's security. Combining his two non-sequential services as the secretary of defense, the second-longest serving is Donald Rumsfeld, who served just ten days fewer than McNamara. The Department of Defense is composed of the Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD), the Joint Chiefs of Staff (JCS) and the Joint Staff (JS), Office of the Inspector General (DODIG), the Combatant Commands, the Military Departments (Department of the Army (DA), Department of the Navy (DON) & Department of the Air Force (DAF)), the Defense Agencies and DoD Field Activities, the National Guard Bureau (NGB), and such other offices, agencies, activities, organizations, and commands established or designated by law, or by the president or by the secretary of defense. Felter will guide 6K's … Secretary Gates joined the Central Intelligence Agency in 1966 and spent nearly 27 years as an intelligence professional. Mexican prosecutors on Thursday declared completely unfounded the U.S. case against a former defense secretary arrested on drug charges in the United States and then returned under pressure from th… Former Secretary of Defense William Cohen tells CNN's Don Lemon that President Donald Trump's tendency towards misinformation is a threat to democracy in the United States. We have an extended conversation with former defense secretary William Cohen about the presidency, military and how to strengthen American democracy. The role was made in 1947. [21], President Joe Biden has nominated retired Army general Lloyd J. Austin III as the 28th United States secretary of defense. It is one of the longest serving continuously operating offices in the Office of the Secretary of Defense and has been recognized for the excellence of its publications and programs for over a half century. Congress granted the same waiver to President Donald Trump’s former Secretary of Defense … [12] Because the Office of Secretary of Defense is vested with legal powers that exceed those of any commissioned officer, and is second only to the president in the military hierarchy, its incumbent has sometimes unofficially been referred to as a de facto "deputy commander-in-chief". The secretary's principally civilian staff element is called the Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD) and is composed of the deputy secretary of defense (DEPSECDEF) and five under secretaries of defense in the fields of acquisition, technology & logistics, comptroller/chief financial officer, intelligence, personnel & readiness, and policy; several assistant secretaries of defense; other directors and the staffs under them. Since it is impractical for either Congress or the president to participate in every piece of Department of Defense affairs, the secretary of defense, and the secretary's subordinate officials generally exercise military authority. All of these high-ranking positions, civil and military, require Senate confirmation. The latest version, signed by former secretary of defense Robert Gates in December 2010, is the first major re-write since 1987.[27][28]. Vice Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. It renamed the Department of War the Department of the Army, and added both it and the Department of the Navy to a newly established National Military Establishment (NME). [24] Since the creation of the position in 1947, such a waiver has only been approved three times, for Army General George Marshall in 1950, Marine Corps General Jim Mattis in 2017, and retired Army General Lloyd J. Austin III in 2021.[25][26]. Bush. The secretary of defense is a statutory member of the National Security Council. Dr. Gates was the only Secretary of Defense in U.S. history to be asked to remain in … [11], Subject only to the orders of the president, the secretary of defense is in the chain of command and exercises command and control, for both operational and administrative purposes, over all Department of Defense military service branches – the Army, Marine Corps, Navy, Air Force, and Space Force – as well as the U.S. Coast Guard when its command and control is transferred to the Department of Defense. He is the only career officer in CIA's history to rise from entry-level employee to Director. [10] To ensure civilian control of the military, no one may be appointed as the secretary of defense within seven years of serving as a commissioned officer of a regular (i.e., non-reserve) component of an armed force. Before becoming the Secretary of Defense, Dr. Gates was the President of Texas A&M University, the nation's seventh largest university. Dr. Gates was the only Secretary of Defense in U.S. history to be asked to remain in that office by a newly elected President. [8] The secretary of defense is appointed by the president with the advice and consent of the Senate, and is by custom a member of the Cabinet and by law a member of the National Security Council. The same statute further designates the secretary as "the principal assistant to the President in all matters relating to the Department of Defense". As a former Army officer and deputy assistant secretary of the Army for President George H.W. In particular, it elevated the status of joint service for commissioned officers, making it in practice a requirement before appointments to general officer and flag officer grades could be made. The War Department, headed by the secretary of war, was created by Act of Congress in 1789 and was responsible for both the Army and Navy until the founding of a separate Department of the Navy in 1798. The order of succession is:[67], Director of Cost Assessment and Program Evaluation, Director of Operational Test and Evaluation, Chief Information Officer of the Department of Defense. The secretary is one of only five or six civilians—the others being the president, the three "service secretaries" (the secretary of the Army, secretary of the Navy, and secretary of the Air Force), and the secretary of homeland security (when the United States Coast Guard is under the United States Department of Homeland Security and has not been transferred to the Department of the Navy under the Department of Defense)—authorized to act as convening authority in the military justice system for General Courts-Martial (10 U.S.C. The acting Defense Secretary, Christopher C. Miller, has ordered the director of the National Security Agency to immediately install Michael Ellis, a former … *Order of Succession is determined by the seniority of officials in their role. The Army generally favored centralization while the Navy had institutional preferences for decentralization and the status quo. A new title was coined by the Act for the head of the NME: Secretary of Defense. § 822: article 22, UCMJ), Special Courts-Martial (10 U.S.C. A Republican, Cohen served as both a member of the United States House of Representatives and Senate, and as Secretary of Defense under Democratic President Bill Clinton. As the secretary of defense is a cilivian position intended to independent of the active duty leadership, a secretary is required to have been retired from service for at least seven (originally ten) years, unless a waiver is approved by Congress. § 113 provides that "subject to the direction of the President", its occupant has "authority, direction, and control over the Department of Defense". The name of the principally military staff organization, organized under the chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, is the Joint Staff (JS). Dr. Gates served as Director of Central Intelligence from 1991 until 1993. [9], The secretary of defense is a statutory office, and the general provision in 10 U.S.C. From the Shadows: The Ultimate Insiders Story of Five Presidents and How They Won the Cold War. The general trend since 1949 has been to further centralize management in the Department of Defense, elevating the status and authorities of civilian OSD appointees and defense-wide organizations at the expense of the military departments and the services within them. The last major revision of the statutory framework concerning the position was done in the Goldwater–Nichols Department of Defense Reorganization Act of 1986. [20], The secretary of the treasury, the secretary of state, the attorney general, and the secretary of defense are generally regarded as the four most important cabinet officials because of the size and importance of their respective departments. Strategic appointment is instrumental to advanced material innovation for defense and security product development for the United States. NPR's Audie Cornish talks with ex-Defense Secretary Chuck Hagel about a Washington Post op-ed, signed by all former living Pentagon chiefs, urging an easy transition to the Biden administration. It is hereby expressed as the sense of the Congress that after General Marshall leaves the office of Secretary of Defense, no additional appointments of military men to that office shall be approved. He explained why he thought Trump should step down. Department of Defense Test Resource Management Center, This page was last edited on 22 January 2021, at 00:20. In 1967 he was commissioned a second lieutenant in the U.S. Air Force and served as an intelligence officer at Whiteman Air Force Base in Missouri. North Andover, MA. James N. Mattis served as the 26th Secretary of Defense. The position of the deputy secretary of defense, the number two position in the department, was also created at this time. The United States Secretary of Defense (SECDEF) is the head of the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD). § 113) the head of the Department of Defense, "the principal assistant to the President in all matters relating to Department of Defense", and has "authority, direction and control over the Department of Defense". Former Air Force secretary Heather Wilson was appointed to the board of director of Maxar Technologies Jan. 19, 2021. Credit: U.S. Air Force Wilson currently is … Mahan, Erin R., and Jeffrey A. Larsen, eds. Former Defense Secretary James Mattis broke his silence and blasted President Donald Trump: "We are witnessing the consequences of three years without mature leadership." [30] As one of the principals, the secretary along with the vice president, secretary of state and the assistant to the president for national security affairs participates in biweekly Principals Committee (PC) meetings, preparing and coordinating issues before they are brought before full NSC sessions chaired by the president. Until becoming Secretary of Defense, Dr. Gates served as Chairman of the Independent Trustees of The Fidelity Funds, the nation's largest mutual fund company, and on the board of directors of NACCO Industries, Inc., Brinker International, Inc. and Parker Drilling Company, Inc. Dr. Gates has also served on the Board of Directors and Executive Committee of the American Council on Education, the Board of Directors of the National Association of State Universities and Land-Grant Colleges, and the National Executive Board of the Boy Scouts of America. [22] The current acting secretary of defense is David Norquist, who assumed acting status following the inauguration of Joe Biden.[23]. By Nick Visser Every living former secretary of defense, including two who served under President Donald Trump, signed an extraordinary rebuke of efforts to undermine the results of the 2020 election as the White House and many congressional Republicans prepare to contest the certification of the Electoral College vote on Wednesday. The resulting National Security Act of 1947 was largely a compromise between these divergent viewpoints. § 824: article 24 UCMJ). Leader of the United States armed forces following the president, (including Defense Agencies and DoD Field Activities), List of United States Secretaries of Defense by time in office, Goldwater–Nichols Department of Defense Reorganization Act of 1986, Organizational structure of the United States Department of Defense, Defense Agencies and DoD Field Activities, under secretary of defense for personnel and readiness, House Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence, assistant to the president for national security affairs, United States Department of Homeland Security, Level I position of the Executive Schedule, Under Secretary of Defense for Intelligence and Security, Chief Management Officer of the Department of Defense, Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition and Sustainment, Under Secretary of Defense for Research and Engineering, Under Secretary of Defense for Personnel and Readiness, Deputy Under Secretary of Defense for Policy, General Counsel of the Department of Defense, Commission to Assess the Ballistic Missile Threat to the United States, Joint Worldwide Intelligence Communications System, National Security Strategy (United States), Office of the Secretary of Defense Identification Badge, Secretary of Defense Employer Support Freedom Award, Unconventional warfare (United States Department of Defense doctrine), US Commission on National Security/21st Century, "Positional Colors for the Department of Defense", "3 U.S. Code § 19 – Vacancy in offices of both President and Vice President; officers eligible to act", "Lloyd Austin: retired army general nominated as Biden defense secretary", "Who is leading federal agencies until Senate confirms Biden's nominees", "Waiver of Statutory Qualifications Relating to Prior Military Service of the Secretary of Defense", "Why Generals Need Congressional Waivers To Become Defense Secretary", "Lloyd Austin Receives Waiver Allowing Him to Become Defense Chief", Department of Defense Directive 5100.01 Functions of the Department of Defense and Its Major Components, "James V. Forrestal – Harry S. Truman Administration", "Louis A. Johnson – Harry S. Truman Administration", "George C. Marshall – Harry S. Truman Administration", "Robert A. Lovett – Harry S. Truman Administration", "Charles E. Wilson – Dwight D. Eisenhower Administration", "Neil H. McElroy -Dwight D. Eisenhower Administration", "Thomas S. Gates, Jr. – Dwight D. Eisenhower Administration", "Robert S. McNamara – John F. Kennedy / Lyndon Johnson Administration", "Clark M. Gifford – Lyndon Johnson Administration", "Melvin R. Laird – Richard Nixon Administration", "Elliot L. Richardson – Richard Nixon Administration", "James R. Schlesinger – Richard Nixon / Gerald Ford Administration", "Donald H. Rumsfeld – Gerald Ford Administration", "Harold Brown – James Carter Administration", "Caspar W. Weinberger – Ronald Reagan Administration", "Frank C. Carlucci – Ronald Reagan Administration", "Richard B. Cheney – George H.W. .mw-parser-output .legend{page-break-inside:avoid;break-inside:avoid-column}.mw-parser-output .legend-color{display:inline-block;min-width:1.25em;height:1.25em;line-height:1.25;margin:1px 0;text-align:center;border:1px solid black;background-color:transparent;color:black}.mw-parser-output .legend-text{}  Democratic While the approval authority for DSSM, DMSM, JSCM, JSAM and JMUA is delegated to inferior DoD officials: the DDSM can only be awarded by the secretary of defense. [12][13][14][15][16] Only the secretary of defense (or the president or Congress) can authorize the transfer of operational control of forces between the three military departments (Department of the Army, Department of the Navy, and Department of the Air Force) and the 10 Combatant Commands (Africa Command, Central Command, European Command, Indo-Pacific Command, Northern Command, Southern Command, Cyber Command, Special Operations Command, Strategic Command, Transportation Command). The shortest-serving secretary of defense is Elliot Richardson, who served 114 days and then was appointed U.S. attorney general amid the resignations of the Watergate Scandal. To address this and other problems, the National Security Act was amended in 1949 to further consolidate the national defense structure in order to reduce interservice rivalry, directly subordinate the secretaries of the Army, the Navy and the Air Force to the secretary of defense in the chain of command, and rename the National Military Establishment as the Department of Defense, making it one Executive Department. Former Homeland Security secretary Janet Napolitano said that the storming of the Capitol on Jan. 6 was “incited” by President Donald Trump, and … Some of those high-ranking officials, civil and military (outside of OSD and the Joint Staff) are: the secretary of the Army, secretary of the Navy, and secretary of the Air Force, Army chief of staff, commandant of the Marine Corps, chief of naval operations, Air Force chief of staff, chief of space operations, and chief of the National Guard Bureau and the combatant commanders of the Combatant Commands. The second-longest unbroken tenure was Caspar Weinberger's, at 6 years, 306 days. Based on the experiences of World War II, proposals were soon made on how to more effectively manage the large combined military establishment. William Sebastian Cohen is an American politician, lawyer and author from the U.S. state of Maine. The secretary of defense, appointed by the president with the advice and consent of the Senate, is by federal law (10 U.S.C. The Act also separated the Army Air Forces from the Army to become its own branch of service, the United States Air Force. The first secretary of defense, James Forrestal, who in his previous capacity as the secretary of the Navy had opposed creation of the new position, found it difficult to exercise authority over the other branches with the limited powers his office had at the time. Dr. Robert M. Gates served as U.S. Secretary of Defense from December 2006 to July 2011. The Defense Distinguished Service Medal (DDSM), the Defense Superior Service Medal (DSSM), the Defense Meritorious Service Medal (DMSM), the Joint Service Commendation Medal (JSCM) and the Joint Service Achievement Medal (JSAM) are awarded, to military personnel for service in joint duty assignments, in the name of the secretary of defense. Former Defense Secretary William Cohen talks to CNN's Ana Cabrera about a letter signed by all 10 living former US defense secretaries declaring the presidential election over. January 19, 2021 – 6K, the world’s leading developer of microwave plasma technology for the production of advanced materials, today announced that Dr. Joe Felter, a former senior Department of Defense official under then Secretary … For the DoD intelligence programs the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence and the House Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence have the principal oversight role. (2012). He is currently a William J. Perry Fellow at … An Army, Navy, and Marine Corps were established in 1775, in concurrence with the American Revolution. (This is not counting deputy secretaries of defense William P. Clements and William Howard Taft IV, who each served a few weeks as temporary/acting secretary of defense). Obama’s first secretary of defense, Robert Gates, resigned without incident in 2011, but would later criticize Obama’s role as commander in chief … § 823: article 23, UCMJ), and Summary Courts-Martial (10 U.S.C. A native of Richland, Washington, Secretary Mattis enlisted in the U.S. Marine Corps Reserve … As the head of the department, the secretary of defense is the chief witness for the congressional committees with oversight responsibilities over the Department of Defense. The longest-serving secretary of defense is Robert McNamara, who served for a total of 7 years, 39 days. Because the Constitution vests all military authority in Congress and the president, the statutory authority of the secretary of defense is derived from their constitutional authorities. [66], On December 10, 2020, President Donald Trump modified the order of succession for the office of Secretary of Defense in an Executive Order (unnumbered as of December 15, 2020). In an extraordinary condemnation, the former defense secretary backs protesters and says the president is trying to turn Americans against one … Recommendations for the Medal of Honor (MOH), formally endorsed in writing by the secretary of the military department concerned and the chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, are processed through the under secretary of defense for personnel and readiness, and such recommendations be must approved by the secretary of defense before it can be handed over to the president, who is the final approval authority for the MOH, although it is awarded in the name of Congress. The longest-serving secretary of defense is Robert McNamara, who served for a total of 7 years, 39 days. Others include two former deputy Secretaries of Defense, two former Army Secretaries, three former Navy Secretaries, and five former Air Force Secretaries. Bush Administration", Department of Defense Key Officials September 1947 – February 2019, "Les Aspin Serves One Year As Defense Secretary", "Leslie Aspin – William J. Clinton Administration", "William J. Perry – William J. Clinton Administration", "William S. Cohen – William J. Clinton Administration", "Donald H. Rumsfeld – George W. Bush Administration", "Robert M. Gates – George W. Bush / Barack Obama Administration", "Leon E. Panetta – Barack Obama Administration", "Chuck Hagel – Barack Obama Administration", "Ashton B. Carter – Barack Obama Administration", "James N. Mattis – Donald Trump Administration", "PN583 — Patrick M. Shanahan — Department of Defense", "Dr. Mark T. Esper – Acting Secretary of Defense", "Letter from Acting Secretary of Defense Richard V. Spencer to Pentagon", "Trump administration official Norquist sworn in as acting Pentagon chief", "Executive Order on Providing an Order of Succession within the Department of Defense", The Judge Advocate General's School, U.S. Army, "Evolution of the Secretary of Defense in the Era of Massive Retaliation: Charles Wilson, Neil McElroy, and Thomas Gates, 1953–1961", In My Time: A Personal and Political Memoir, "Department of Defense Directive 5100.01 Functions of the Department of Defense and Its Major Components", Vice Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, Special Access Program Oversight Committee, Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, Defense Equal Opportunity Management Institute, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Defense Counterintelligence and Security Agency, National Security Agency/Central Security Service, Assistant Secretary of Defense for Public Affairs, American Forces Radio and Television Service, Assistant Secretary for Acquisition, Logistics, and Technology, Assistant Secretary (Financial Management and Comptroller), Assistant Secretary of the Army for Installations, Energy and Environment, Assistant Secretary of the Army for Manpower and Reserve Affairs, Assistant Secretary of the Navy (Financial Management and Comptroller), Assistant Secretary of the Navy (Installations and Environment), Assistant Secretary of the Navy (Manpower and Reserve Affairs), Assistant Secretary of the Navy (Research, Development and Acquisitions), Organization of the United States Marine Corps, Assistant Secretary of the Air Force (Acquisition), Assistant Secretary of the Air Force (Financial Management & Comptroller), Assistant Secretary of the Air Force (Installations, Environment & Logistics), Assistant Secretary of the Air Force (Manpower & Reserve Affairs), General Counsel of the Department of the Air Force, Air Force Office of Special Investigations, Alternate National Military Command Center, Joint Intelligence Operations Center Europe Analytic Center, Joint Functional Component Command for Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance, Under Secretary of Defense for Intelligence, United States federal executive departments, Presidential line of succession in the United States of America, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=United_States_Secretary_of_Defense&oldid=1001921736, Lists of members of the Cabinet of the United States, Short description is different from Wikidata, Wikipedia indefinitely semi-protected pages, All Wikipedia articles written in American English, Articles with unsourced statements from February 2017, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. At first, each of the service secretaries maintained cabinet status. Among the former Pentagon heads who signed on to the op-ed include both of President Trump’s defense secretaries, James Mattis and Mark Esper. The secretary of defense, with the concurrence of the secretary of state, is the approval authority for the acceptance and wear of NATO medals issued by the secretary general of NATO and offered to the U.S. permanent representative to NATO in recognition of U.S. servicemembers who meet the eligibility criteria specified by NATO.[29]. He has also been President of the National Eagle Scout Association. NORTH ANDOVER, Mass., Jan. 19, 2021 /PRNewswire/ -- 6K, the world's leading developer of microwave plasma technology for the production of advanced materials, today announced that Dr. Joe Felter, a former senior Department of Defense official under then Secretary of Defense James Mattis, has joined 6K's advisory board.Dr. In addition, there is the Joint Meritorious Unit Award (JMUA), which is the only ribbon (as in non-medal) and unit award issued to joint DoD activities, also issued in the name of the secretary of defense. Defenselink bio, Retrieved February 8, 2010; and Marshall Foundation bio, Retrieved February 8, 2010. Secretary of Defense is a Level I position of the Executive Schedule,[4] and thus earns a salary of $210,700 per year as of January 2018. [17][18][19] The chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff is the principal military adviser to the secretary of defense and the president; while the chairman may assist the secretary and president in their command functions, the chairman is not in the chain of command. The mission of the historical office is to collect, preserve, and present the history of the Office … Dr. Robert M. Gates served as U.S. Secretary of Defense from December 2006 to July 2011. He served as Deputy Director of Central Intelligence from 1986 until 1989 and as Assistant to the President and Deputy National Security Adviser at the White House from January 20, 1989, until November 6, 1991, for President George H.W. A native of Kansas, Secretary Gates received his bachelor's degree from the College of William and Mary, his master's degree in history from Indiana University, and his doctorate in Russian and Soviet history from Georgetown University. Combining his two non-sequential services as the secretary of defense, the second-longest serving is Donald Rumsfeld, who served just ten days fewer than McNamara. It is hereby expressed as the intent of the Congress that the authority granted by this Act is not to be construed as approval by the Congress of continuing appointments of military men to the office of Secretary of Defense in the future. If confirmed, Austin would be the first African American to lead the Department of Defense. William Cohen, former defense secretary under President Clinton, was another co-author of the op-ed and spoke to Smith Wednesday afternoon. Army Distinguished Service Medal, Navy Distinguished Service Medal & Air Force Distinguished Service Medal), the DSSM corresponds to the Legion of Merit, the DMSM to the Meritorious Service Medal, the JSCM to the service commendation medals, and the JSAM to the achievement medals issued by the services. During that period, he spent nearly nine years at the National Security Council, The White House, serving four presidents of both political parties. This position corresponds to what is generally known as a defense minister in many other countries. The secretary of defense (SecDef) is the leader and chief executive officer of the United States Department of Defense, the executive department of the Armed Forces of the U.S.[5][6][7] The secretary of defense's position of command and authority over the U.S. military is second only to that of the president. The DDSM is analogous to the distinguished services medals issued by the military departments (i.e. Deputy Under Secretary of Defense for Intelligence and Security; Deputy Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition and Sustainment; Deputy Under Secretary of Defense for Research and Engineering, Deputy Under Secretary of Defense (Comptroller), Deputy Under Secretary of Defense for Personnel and Readiness. The Historical Office of the Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD) dates to 1949. As the head of DoD, all officials, employees and service members are "under" the secretary of defense. Secretary Gates has been awarded the National Security Medal, the Presidential Citizens Medal, has twice received the National Intelligence Distinguished Service Medal, and has three times received CIA's highest award, the Distinguished Intelligence Medal. Described as "a Republican moderate from Maine, something of a maverick centrist" by David … President Barack Obama was the eighth president Dr. Gates served.   Republican Department of Defense Directive 5100.01 describes the organizational relationships within the Department, and is the foundational issuance for delineating the major functions of the Department. Asked to remain in that office by a newly elected President ), Special (! Confirmed, Austin would be the first African American to lead the Department, also! And Jeffrey A. Larsen, eds, UCMJ ), Special Courts-Martial ( 10 U.S.C U.S. of! 22 January 2021, at 00:20 be asked to remain in that office by a newly elected President the! Army, Navy, and Marine Corps were established in 1775, in concurrence with the Revolution. Courts-Martial ( 10 U.S.C own branch of service, the secretary of Defense is a office!, employees and service members are `` under '' the secretary of Defense Act of 1986 Gates. The United States he is the head of the deputy secretary of Defense ( DoD.... The resulting National security Act of 1986 the status quo own branch of service, the two!, at 00:20 separated the Army generally favored centralization while the Navy had institutional preferences for decentralization and the provision... Position of the National Eagle Scout Association total of 7 years former secretary of defense days! Defense Test Resource Management Center, this page was last edited on 22 January 2021, at 6 years 306. 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